In the recent two years the imports of Chinese pharmaceutical products to Poland have recorded dramatic increase. The game changer in 2017 and 2018 was the dramatic increase in imports of medicaments. They marginalized the first aid kits as well as medical and pharmaceutical accessories, that had dominated the imports structure before. Growth of China’s pharmaceutical industry, rising exports and difficulties, that foreign companies face in the Chinese market increase the challenges for Polish pharmaceutical companies wishing to enter China. Those factors resulted in the increase of Poland’s trade deficit with China in pharmaceuticals in general and medicaments in particular. Pharmaceutical industry is promoted by the Polish government as one of champions of the Polish export. The sharp rise in both amount and quantity as well as a new structure of the pharmaceuticals imports from China is however important signal how the trade exchange between China and Poland has changed in recent years and how the China’s domestic industrial policies impact Poland as China’s trading partner.